A Particular Account of the Commencement and Progress of the Insurrection of the Negroes in St.
Domingo. London: J. Sewell, 1792.
This is a translation of a speech made to the French National Assembly by the Deputies from the
General Assembly of St. Domingue explaining the origins of the slave revolt. The viewpoint presented is
that of the white planters. The speech describes in graphic detail the horrors of the slave insurrection
and the gruesome murder of the white population at the hands of the slaves. The Deputies suggest
that there would not have been an insurrection except for the activities of the Amis de Noirs (literally
"Friends of the Blacks") which fomented discontent among the black population. This speech is
interesting because it is a first person account and helpful in explaining the position of the white
An Inquiry into the Causes of the Insurrection of the Negroes in the Island of St. Domingo.
Philadelphia: Crukshank, 1792.
Like the preceding entry, this too is a translation of remarks made to the French National Assembly
looking into the causes of the slave revolt in St. Domingue. Unlike the previous entry, however, these
remarks reject the arguments of the white planters as to the origins of the revolution and instead lay
the blame at their feet. This report suggests that the unwillingness of the white planters to extend
equal rights to the mulattos was the source of the discontent which eventually spread to the slave
Aptheker, Herbert. American Negro Slave Revolts.  5th ed. New York: International Publishers,
This book could be considered both a primary and a secondary source. It is a complete and very well
documented account of the history of resistance to slavery in the United States. The author's analysis is
insightful and was very helpful to me in preparing my paper. However, what was even more helpful was
the primary source material which helped document just how big an impact the Haitian Revolution had
on the United States in the pre-Civil War period. This book is one of the best sources I found.
Howard, Thomas Phipps. The Haitian Journal of Lieutenant Howard, York Hussiers, 1796-1798.
Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1986.
This is a first-hand account of the Haitian Revolution written by a lieutenant in a regiment of the
British expeditionary force sent to St. Domingue. As was true of the French forces, the British forces
were repelled and soundly defeated by the Haitian army led by Toussaint L'Ouverture. This journal
vividly describes Lieutenant Howard's experiences during the final two years of Britain's occupation of
St. Domingue. The editor of this book notes that it is probably "the only reliable firsthand military
account in English" of the slave uprising. The journal is interesting because of what it tells us about the
slave rebellion and the military history of a doomed expedition. In the process, it provides insight into
the military leadership of Toussaint from someone who fought against him.
Lassat, Pierre-Clement de. Louisiana, Napoleon, and the United States. Lamham: University Press of
This book, written by the man who was designated by Napoleon to become the governor of French
Louisiana, is an excellent primary source of information pertaining to the events leading up to the sale
of Louisiana to the United States. The book contains particularly interesting insights into Napoleon's
thought process in deciding precipitously to sell Louisiana.
Marbois, M. Barbe. The History of Louisiana. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1977.
This primary source, written by the then-French Minister of the Treasury, provides not only a
masterly written and very informative account of the history of Louisiana but also first person insight
into the thoughts of Napoleon at the time he decided to sell the Louisiana territory to the United States.
The author was the French representative to the negotiations which led to the sale of Louisiana.
Mullin, Michael, et. American Negro Slavery: A Documentary History. Columbia: University of South
Carolina Press, 1976.
This book traces the history of black slaves in America through original primary source materials,
including diaries, public records, newspaper accounts, and personal correspondence. These documents
help you understand what it was like to be a slave in America, as well as how the slaves were perceived
by white society. For purposes of my paper, the book was useful because it contained a series of
accounts pertaining to Denmark Vesey, the leader of one of the largest planned slave insurrections in
U.S. history, and a man who clearly drew inspiration from the Haitian slave revolt. Vesey was born in
Africa and was brought to the Caribbean, and specifically to St. Domingue, by his master. He had an
opportunity to observe first hand the Haitian revolt. Vesey eventually purchased his freedom with a
lottery ticket, after which he moved to the United States and settled in Charleston, South Carolina, a city
which had a long history of contact with the West Indies. There he carefully planned a slave revolt
involving thousands of slaves. His plans were to take the entire city and, eventually, to escape to Haiti.
His plot was foiled, however, and Vesey and thirty-five others were tried and hanged. One of the
excerpts in this book reports on the Vesey trial, in which Vesey took the stand and defended himself.
Ott, Thomas O. The Haitian Revolution. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1973.
This book could be listed as both a primary and a secondary source. Although it is written by a
contemporary author, it contains much primary source material. The book is a history of the Haitian
Revolution told in large part through first hand accounts. It has a particularly good discussion of the
consequences of the Revolution for the United States. This source provided me with first hand
explanations of the events that were taking place in Haiti at the time of the rebellion. This book does a
particularly nice job of telling, through first hand accounts, of the impact of the Haitian Revolution on
Parham, Althia de Puech, ed. My Odyssey: Experiences of a Young Refugee from Two Revolutions by
a Creole of Saint Domingue. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959.
This is the first person account of the French and Haitian Revolutions told by a young French Creole
author (16 years old at the time of the events described in the book) whose family fled the terrors of
the French Revolution in 1791 and moved back to Haiti seeking asylum. Unfortunately, they returned to
St. Domingue just in time to be caught up in the slave revolt. The family stayed in St. Domingue about
two years, during which time the young author fought on the side of the French planters in many
uprisings. After the horrible massacre and burning of Cap Francais, a major city in St. Domingue, the
family once again fled, this time to the United States.
Although I wasn't able to use this book very much in my paper, due to page constraints, it is a
fascinating account of the Haitian Revolution from the perspective of an actual participant. According to
the editor, who is a distant relative of the author, this is the only first person account available which is
told from the side of the French planters. This book provides a fascinating account of the situation in
St. Domingue immediately prior to the slave revolt, the events that actually took place during the
author's two visits to the embattled island (the second coming in 1794 when the author returned to St.
Domingue from the United States to fight on the side of the French against the rebels.
Rus, Martin. Night of Fire: The Black Napoleon and the Battle for Haiti. New York: Sarpedon
Publishers, Inc., 1994.
Although this book could be considered a secondary source, I have treated as a primary source
because of its many primary source quotes. The book traces the history of the Haitian Revolution from
the pre-Revolution brutality leveled by white plantation owners at the slaves to the uprising itself.
Ryan, Mary C., ed. The Louisiana Purchase. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records
This book contains copies of documents pertaining to the purchase by the United States of the
Louisiana territory, including the actual purchase agreement. It also contains a good discussion of the
consequences for the United States of the purchase of the Louisiana territory.
Stephen, James. The Crisis of the Sugar Colonies; or An Enquiry Into The Objects and Probable Effects
of the French Expedition to West Indies. London: J. Hatchard, 1802.
This document consists of a series of four letters written by a James Stephen to the British Prime
Minister offering advice concerning the situation in St. Domingue following the slave uprising and on
the eve of Napoleon's ill-fated attack. It is unclear who Mr. Stephen is and whether his letters are an
official report solicited by the Prime Minister or simply voluntary comments. The letters are interesting
for a number of reasons. In the first letter discussing conditions in the West Indies that led to the slave
insurrection, Mr. Stephen provides an excellent description of the harsh conditions under which the St.
Domingue slaves were forced to work. The other part of these letters which I found to be of particular
interest were the British predictions as to what Napoleon was intending when he sent troops toward St.
Domingue. The author of these letters guessed correctly that Napoleon wanted more than simply to
persuade Toussaint and his band of rebels to swear allegiance to the French. Instead, the author
predicts that Napoleon is bent on restoring slavery. The author suggests that, at the outset, Napoleon
should have little trouble subduing the rebels. However, once the former-slaves become aware of
French intent to reinstate slavery, this author predicts that the mass of blacks will rise up again, placing
in jeopardy the French invasion.
Toussad, Louis de. Justification of Lewis Tousad Addressed to the National Convention of France.
Philadelphia: Daniel Humphrirs, 1793.
This is a rather pathetic plea from a man who led French forces during the slave rebellion written
from prison, professing his innocence to charges that he conspired with the black insurgents against
the citizens of St. Domingue. Although the events which gave rise to Mr. Tousad's imprisonment are not
entirely clear, this report was interesting because it reveals just how many factions were in conflict
during the Haitian Revolution.
Tyson, George F., ed. Toussaint Louverture. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1973.
This book is an excellent source of commentary on Toussaint Louverture, the Haitian Revolution, and
its aftermath, told largely through the first person accounts of people who lived during this period in
history. It gave me a good perspective on the fact that Toussaint was a highly controversial figure,
feared by some people and very much loved by others.
Barry, James P. The Louisiana Purchase. New York: Franklin Watts, Inc., 1973.
This book is a good general source of information on the history of the Louisiana Purchase. I used it
as an overview and also as a springboard to further research.
Beard, John R. The Life of Toussaint L'Ouverture, The Negro Patriot of Hayti. London: Ingram, Cooke,
and Co., 1853.
This book is essentially a biography of Toussaint L'Ouverture. It is one of many biographies written in
the mid-1800s that portrays Toussaint in glowing terms to have been a patriot and hero.
Blumberg, Rhoda. What's the Deal? Jefferson, Napoleon and the Louisiana Purchase. Washington,
D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1998.
This rather short book provides an informative overview of the events leading up to the Louisiana
Purchase from the perspective of both the Americans and the French. Of particular interest were the
quotations from George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams concerning Toussaint
Louverture. From the beginning, Americans both admired Toussaint and feared the impact the Haitian
slave revolt might have on this country.
Bryan, Patrick E. The Haitian Revolution and After. University of Minnesota Thesis, 1983.
This college thesis provides a good overview of life in Haiti before the Haitian Revolution, including a
good discussion of the complicated social structure existing in the colony prior to the Revolution.
Clarke, John Henrik. African People in World History. Baltimore: Black Classic Press, 1993.
This is a fascinating little book that focuses on the history of Africans in the Americas and in the
Caribbean Islands in the contest of the entire African past. The book covers a lot of territory in very few
pages. For purposes of my paper, the most relevant section of the book was its discussion of the
Atlantic slave trade. With respect to the plantation system in both the Caribbean and the United States,
Clarke explains that it was a "natural incubator for slave revolts." Slaves were brought in large numbers
and generally kept together. The slave owners thought that by keeping groups of slaves together the
Africans "would communicate with each other and more could be accomplished." Clarke notes, however,
that this communication also served to facilitate slave revolts. Another interesting discussion in this
book is the discussion of the American colonization movement or the back-to-Africa movement, This
movement, spearheaded by the American Colonization Society, and strongly influenced by events in
Haiti, sought to return free blacks to Africa as a means of eliminating the threat of insurrection which
the large number of free blacks was believed to pose to whites in the United States.
Davis, David Brion. The Slave Power Conspiracy and the Paranoid Style. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State
University Press, 1969.
This author theorizes that American politics in general is marked by many examples of situations in
which conflicts are made worse by the projection of conspiracy theories onto opponents. The belief in a
conspiracy--which often does not exist at all--has been responsible for creating tensions greater than
are warranted by the reality. With respect to the events leading up to the Civil War, this author suggests
that both southerners and northerners were prone to paranoia. Southerners inherited the paranoia of
French conservatives who attributed the St. Domingue slave revolt to the "undercover agents and
inflammatory propaganda of the Amis des Noirs, who were seen in France as saboteurs employed by
Britain, much as British abolitionists were charged with being the tools of French Jacobinism. The myth
that abolitionists were directly responsible for the bloodbath of Santo Domingo became an entrenched
part of master class ideology, in Latin America as well as the United States." In turn, northerners viewed
southern slave owners through a paranoid lens, fearing that this relative minority intended to take over
the federal government. According to the author, the paranoia among northerners meant that even
those who were not particularly sympathetic to the plight of the slaves nonetheless supported
emancipation as a means of defeating the perceived threat from the slave owners.
DeConde, Alexander. This Affair of Louisiana. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976.
As its name suggests, this book provided me with an informative background on the dealings that
led to the sale of the Louisiana territory to the United States.
DeVoto, Bernard. The Course of Empire. . Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1998.
This book contains an excellent, concise summary of the driving forces behind the Haitian
Revolution and the French invasion of Haiti. The book also sets forth the conflicting views of the United
States about Haiti. On the one hand, Americans--particularly the Abolitionists--focused on Toussaint
Louverture as a hero in that he had led the successful Haitian Revolution, Americans also wanted to
maintain Haiti as a trading partner, and therefore sought to had an interest in maintaining good
relations with the new nation. At the same time, however, as the author explains, from the beginning,
American leaders including Washington, Jefferson, and Adams feared the spread of slave unrest to this
country from Haiti.
The book also contains an interesting discussion of the considerations that went into Napoleon's
decision to sell Louisiana. Among the most interesting facts noted in this book is Napoleon's prediction
of the consequences of the sale for France. Barbe-Marbois, the minister of finance who conducted the
negotiations for France, quotes Napoleon as having said: "This accession of territory consolidates the
power of the United States forever, and I have given England a maritime rival who sooner or later will
humble her pride." As DeVoto notes, "The unifier of Europe and the remaker of the world, who had also
ended forever the dream of a North American France, was here looking down a long arc of time with
Ferrell, Robert and Richard Natkiel. Atlas of American History. Greenwich: Brompton Books, 1993.
This book is an atlas which covers many of the major events in U.S. history. For my purposes,
however, the book was primarily useful for its discussion of the process of expansion begun by the
Louisiana Purchase and the discussion of the events leading up to the Civil War and how those events
were affected by expansion. This book makes a good argument that not only did expansion further
polarize the North and South over the issue of slavery, but that the expansion begun with Louisiana
also resulted in a linking of the agriculture of the Middle West with the industrialism of the Northeast,
ultimately accentuating the regionalism that lay at the heart of the Civil War. With respect to the Civil
War, this book says categorically that, although historians in the past have pointed "variously to a
difference in economic systems, disagreement on constitutional law, or a failure of leadership in both
[North and South]" to explain the Civil War, "these theories ignored the root cause of it all: slavery." And
the Louisiana expansion did much to heighten tensions over slavery.
Fick, Carolyn E. The Making of Haiti: The Saint Domingue Revolution from Below. Knoxville: The
University of Tennessee Press, 1990.
This book is a very interesting account of the Haitian Revolution. It is unlike the other books I read in
its major thesis. This author argues that it was not Toussaint or any of the leaders of the Revolution
who were the dominant figures in the revolt; rather it was the uneducated slaves who were the
principal architects of their own freedom. This book devotes particular attention to the role played by
the fugitive slaves (called maroons) in orchestrating the fight for independence.
Geracimos, Ann. "A Mystery in Miniature," Smithsonian Magazine. Washington, D.C.: January, 2000,
Vol. 30: pages. 20-21.
This article, although brief, was very helpful in explaining U.S. reaction to the Haitian Revolution at
the time it occurred. The author points out that President Adams, who was from the North, wanted to
increase trade with Haiti and, therefore, thought it was important for the Revolution to succeed. By
contrast, Thomas Jefferson took a different view. Reflecting his southern roots, he was concerned that
if the Haitian rebellion succeeded, there was a good chance that it might spread to the U.S.
Hunt, Alfred W. Haiti's Influence on Antebellum America. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University
This book was easily the best book I read concerning the impact of the Haitian Revolution on the
United States. Not only is the book clear and well-written, but is also provides a host of primary source
material reflecting the views of people living in the South in the pre-Civil War era which reflects just
how deeply the Haitian Revolution and the fears it spawned impacted the attitude of the South toward
slavery. It was this book that first made clear to me just how great an impact the Haitian Revolution had
in creating the sharp polarity between North and South over the issue of slavery, which contributed to
the Civil War. Although I used this book principally as a source for connecting the Haitian Revolution
with the American Civil War, the scope of the impact of the Haitian Revolution on this country was far
broader than its contribution to the American Civil War. Hunt shows in this book just how profoundly
Haitian emigrants affected America, particularly Louisiana, where Haitian influence is seen in everything
from language to politics, religion, culture, architecture, and cuisine.
James, C.L.R. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint Louverture and the San Domingo Revolution.  3d
ed. London: Allison & Busby, 1980.
This book is a passionate, perhaps less-than-objective look at the Haitian Revolution by an author
who clearly views Toussaint as a hero. Despite the clear philosophical bias of the book, it is a useful
(and often cited by other historians) discussion of the slave revolt. The book does an excellent job of
discussing the plight of the black slaves in Haiti and explaining the emotional underpinnings of the
Johnson, Paul. A History of the American People. New York: Harper Perennial, 1998.
This book contains an excellent analysis of the Louisiana Purchase, its history and its consequences
for the United States. The author asserts that the "most important inducement to immigration of 1800s
was cheap land.... In the entire history of the United States, the land purchase system was the single
most benevolent act of government." Although the policy by which the government sold land to settlers
for $2 an acre pre-dated the Louisiana Purchase, the acquisition of that vast territory greatly expanded
the program. According to this source, the occupation of the Mississippi Valley involving an area the
size of western Europe, "marked the point at which the United States ceased to be a small struggling
ex-colony and turned itself into a major nation."
This book is also an excellent source for the background of the Civil War, including the pressures
created by the rapid expansion of cotton plantations into the new territory encompassed within the
Louisiana Purchase. According to the author, it was the huge growth of the cotton industry, fostered by
European demand for cotton and made possible by Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin, that
created "the South" as a "special phenomenon, a culture, a cast of mind...." In the Deep South, carved
out of the Louisiana territory, cotton was king and plantation owners were deeply indebted to slavery.
"With so much money invested in slavery it was not surprising that the South ceased to apologize for
slavery and began to defend it." This defense of slavery increased the rift with the North that would lead
to the Civil War.
Knight, Franklin W. "AHR Forum--The Haitian Revolution." Amer. Hist. Rev. Vol. 105, No. 1 (February
This very recent article is directly on point for my paper because it discusses the importance of the
Haitian Revolution in history. This article does a great job of underscoring the interrelationship of
events in other parts of the world and the Haitian Revolution. This author also describes how the
Haitian Revolution impacted the world in ways that went beyond the United States (and, thus, beyond
the scope of this paper).
Knight, Franklin W. The African Dimension in Latin American Societies. New York: Macmillan
Publishing Co., Inc., 1974.
This short book provides a good overview of the slave trade and its effect on the entire New World
(including the United States). I found particularly interesting the author's discussion of how the practice
of slavery varied from country to country and how various circumstances and institutions impacted the
conditions to which the slaves were subjected. For example, the author notes that in some parts of the
Caribbean during the time preceding the Haitian Revolution--although not in Haiti itself--"the Church
spoke out not against slavery but in favor of amelioration of the conditions of slave labor." The author
notes, however, that the Church "at no time opposed slavery. It actively supported the status quo, it
owned slaves, and it vigorously participated in the slave economy. The Jesuits gained a reputation for
benevolence and humanitarianism toward their African slaves, yet even they did not oppose the
institution of slavery at any time." In the colony of Haiti, the Church turned a deaf ear toward the cries
of the slaves.
Lacy, Dan. The Abolitionists. St. Louis: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1978.
This book, which is about the history of the Abolitionist movement in the United States, has a good
discussion of why the Northern Abolitionists were so angered by the introduction of slaves into the new
"Louisiana Purchase 1803," http://galenet.gale.com/a/acp/netacg...&u=/a/acp/db/dtou/
index.html&r=1&f=g. Online. World Wide Web. 2/2/00.
Although short, this article provided me with a concise summary of why Napoleon wanted Louisiana
and why he ended up selling it. It also identified three consequences of the Louisiana Purchase of which
I was not aware.
Lyon, Wilson E. Louisiana in French Diplomacy. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1974.
This book contains an excellent discussion of why Napoleon wanted Louisiana, and why it was so
important for the United States to own it. Also, the book contains a good discussion of the
consequences for the United States of the acquisition of the Louisiana territory.
McPherson, James M. The Struggle for Equality: Abolitionists and the Negro in the Civil War and
Reconstruction. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964.
The author of this book is a noted scholar on the American Civil War. This book focuses, as the title
indicates, on the struggle of the Negro for equality both during and after the Civil War. While the
primary focus of the book is on events that are beyond the scope of my paper, this book has an
excellent discussion of how Abolitionists countered the argument that blacks were innately inferior to
whites by reference to the Haitian Revolution and Toussaint L'Ouverture. McPherson notes that the
advocates of racial equality, looking for "authentic black heroes" focused on Toussaint who was "[b]y all
odds, the greatest of these." Wendell Phillips, one of the leading abolitionists, gave as one of his "most
powerful and compelling lectures" a biography of Toussaint as a means of dramatizing the fitness of
blacks for freedom. In an excerpt from that speech, Phillips argued that "Hayti, from the ruins of her
colonial dependence, is become a civilized state, the seventh nation in the catalogue of commerce with
this country, inferior in morals and education to none of the West Indian isles. Toussaint made her what
she is. Courage, purpose, endurance--they are the tests."
Meinig, D.W. Continental America, 1800-1867. Hampton: Vail-Ballou Press, 1993, Vol. 2.
Although this book covers a large period of time in American history, it was a very good source
because it has an extensive section on the importance of Louisiana to the United States and, also, a
small section on how the rebellion of the slaves in Haiti forced U.S. slaveowners to be even harsher to
its own slaves out of fear that what happened in Haiti would be repeated in the United States.
Merk, Frederick. History of the Westward Movement. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978.
As its name suggests, this book is a comprehensive history of the westward movements in the
United States and its impact on the course of history. This book provided support for a number of my
theses about the importance of the Louisiana territory as a turning point in American history.
Specifically, it both confirms the importance of the Louisiana territory in shaping the country, by
opening vistas to the west and encouraging immigration, for example. It also, however, underscores
the fact that the expansion started by Louisiana intensified sectional problems, including that of the
spread of slavery which led to the Civil War.
Merk, Frederick. Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History: A Reinterpretation. New York:
Alfred A. Knopf, 1963.
This book is a study of public opinion regarding expansionist drives in the United States in the
nineteenth century. The book explores the push for expansion that began with the Louisiana Purchase
and grew into the cry of manifest destiny. This book, which is an in-depth look at all the forces shaping
manifest destiny, went far beyond the scope of my paper. However, it was useful in underscoring for
me just how important the idea of expansion has been historically in the development of the American
Rogozinski, Jan. A Brief History of the Caribbean. New York: The Penguin Group, 1992.
This book is a concise, well written history of the entire Caribbean region. It was helpful to me
because it placed the Haitian Revolution in the context of a much larger history. It does a particularly
good job of describing the life of a Haitian slave, noting, for example, that the nature of sugar cane as
a crop made the work of a slave on the sugar plantations more back-breaking than was true of the
work of slaves on, for example, cotton plantations..
Scott, Juliua Sherrard, III. The Common Wind: Currents of Afro-American Communication in the Era
of the Haitian Revolution. PhD Diss. Duke University, 1986. Durham: University Press, 1986.
This PhD disssertation was called to my attention by one of the judges of my paper at the regional
level. It is a tremendous source of information on my topic. This dissertation discusses how the ideas
underlying the Haitian Revolution were connected to the French Revolution and how they were
subsequently communicated to many parts of the world, including the United States. The dissertation
contains an excellent discussion of the origins of the Haitian Revolution. For purposes of my paper,
however, the dissertation was probably most helpful in the support it provided for my thesis--that
events in Haiti were communicated to the United States where they greatly impacted the course of our
history. The author explains how the communication occurred, noting, for example, that U.S. vessels
involved in trade were a prime source of communication. The author also discusses how important
Haiti became to Afro Americans in this country as a battle cry of freedom. The author notes that
nineteenth century Afro-North American historians like ex-slave William Wells Brown characterized the
Haitian Revolution as "the pivotal event in the history of Afro-Americans." The author of this
dissertation argues that "[u]p to the present day, Toussaint and the Haitian Revolution continue to
occupy a central place in the cultural memory of blacks in North America."
Wexler, Alan. Atlas of Western Expansion. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1995.
As this book's name suggests, it is a very good source of information on how the Louisiana Purchase
started a series of expansions, in the process setting a precedent on how the United States would
acquire territory in the future.
Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States 1492-Present. New York: Harper Perennial,
This book is a broad history of the United States. For my purposes, it was interesting for two
reasons. It contains a good description of a sad chapter in America's history which is integrally bound
up in U.S. expansion--the adoption of a policy of "Indian Removal." The Louisiana territory provided a
way for the young U.S. to deal with its "Indian problem" without having to go to war. Jefferson, in fact,
proposed to Congress after the acquisition of Louisiana that Indians should be encouraged to settle
down on small tracts and do farming within the new territory. The reason for the Indian Removal policy
and its impact can be seen, in part, through statistics. In 1790, there were 3,900,000 Americans, most
of them living within 50 miles of the Atlantic Ocean. By 1830, there were 13 million Americans and by
1840, 4,500,000 of them had crossed into the Mississippi Valley. To make room for white settlers, the
Indians had to be moved. In 1820, 120,000 Indians lived east of the Mississippi River. However, by
1844, all but 30,000 had been forced to migrate west. The Louisiana territory made this forced
migration possible and, in the process, spared the U.S. a potentially costly military confrontation.
1 C.L.R. James, The Black Jacobins: Toussaint Louverture and the San Domingo Revolution ]1928] 3d ed.
(London: Allison & Busby, 1980), vii.
2 Patrick E. Bryan, The Haitian Revolution and After (University of Minnesota Thesis, 1983) 6; see also
James, vii (claiming that St. Domingue was responsible for an even higher percent--two-thirds--of
France's overseas trade).
3 See generally Carolyn Fick, The Making of Haiti: The Saint Domingue Revolution from Below
(Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press, 1990), 15-17 (discussing the economic structure of St.
Domingue and the caste society of the colony in the pre-Revolution days).
4 George F. Tyson, ed., Toussaint Louverture Great Lives Observed Series (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice
Hall, Inc., 1971) 6.
5 Ibid; Franklin W. Knight, The African Dimension in Latin American Societies (New York: Macmillan
Publishing Co., Inc., 1974) 64.
6 Ibid; Bryan, 19 (noting that, in 1767, on the larger plantations, there were on average only three
whites to every three or four hundred Africans. On smaller plantations, the ratio was even more
disadvantageous for the whites--one or two whites to three hundred or four hundred blacks).
7 Tyson, 6; Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean (New York: The Penguin Group, 1992) 138-
8 Ibid; see also James, 5-6 (describing cruelty to which slaves were subjected).
9 Rogozinski, 164-65; Julius Scott III, The Common Wind: Currents of Afro American Communication in
the Era of the Haitian Revolution PhD dissertation. (Durham: Duke University, 1986) 1.
10 Tyson, 10.
12 Knight, 42.
13 See Bernard DeVoto, The Course of Empire  (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1998) 388.
14 Fick, 206.
15 DeVoto, 388.
16 Fick, 313.
17 DeVoto, 589.
18 Ibid. Shortly thereafter, Leclerc himself died of yellow fever.
19 Rogozinski, 172.
20 Blumberg, 116.
21 James P. Barry, The Louisiana Purchase (New York: Franklin Watts, Inc., 1973) 80 (quoting noted
American historian Henry Adams).
22 Blumberg, 77.
23 Ibid, 32.
24 Paul Johnson, A History of the American People (New York: Harper Perennial, 1998) 290 (calling
successful settlement of the Mississippi Valley "one of the decisive events in history. By means of it,
America became truly dynamic, emerging from the eastern seaboard...into the great river valleys
25 The vast Louisiana territory also enabled the young United States to avoid a potentially disastrous
military confrontation over the removal of Indians from land coveted by white settlers by providing a
territory into which the Indians could be "relocated" as settlers moved into the Mississippi Valley. See
Howard Zinn, A People's History of the United States 1492 - Present (New York: Harper Perennial, 1995)
26 Barry, 81.
28 Johnson, 317-19.
29 Robert Ferrell and Richard Natkiel, Atlas of American History (Greenwich: Brompton Books, 1993) 47;
30 Ferrell, 44 (the process of expansion begun by the Louisiana Purchase led directly to the American
Civil War. "This war came from rapid expansion and the creation of new states."); D. W. Meinig, The
Shaping of America, A Geographical Perspective of 500 Years of History, Continental America, 1800-
1867 Vol. 2 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993) 457 (discussing Bleeding Kansas and events
leading up to it).
31 Alfred W. Hunt, Haiti's Influence on Antebellum America. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University
Press, 1988) 190. See also Herbert Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts  5th ed. (New York:
International Publishers, 1987) 368 ("There are few phases of ante-bellum Southern life and history
that were not in some way influenced by the fear of, or the actual outbreak of, militant concerted slave
32 Althia de Puech Parham, ed., My Odyssey, Experiences of a Young Refugee from Two Revolutions By
a Creole of Saint Domingue (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959) 28.
33 Martin Rus, Night of Fire: The Black Napoleon and the Battle for Haiti (New York: Sarpedon
Publishers, Inc., 1994) 5-6. See also A Particular Account of the Commencement and Progress of the
Insurrection of the Negroes in St. Domingo (London: J. Sewell, 1792) 5-9 (describing brutal slaughter of
34 Hunt, 115.
35 Thomas O. Ott, The Haitian Revolution (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1973) 195.
36 Ott, 196. See also Zinn, 169 (noting that the Vesey trial record itself "was ordered destroyed soon
after publication, as too dangerous for slaves to see."); Hunt, 181 (noting that John Brown's raid on the
arsenal at Harper's Ferry may also have been inspired, at least in part, by the Haitian Revolt. Brown,
who had hoped that his raid would ignite a general slave uprising, admitted at his trial to having read
widely about Toussaint Louverture).
37 See generally Ott, 196; Hunt, 107-47.
38 Meining, 22; see also Appendix.
39 Ott, 195.
40 Aptheker, 373.
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